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(SSL provides point-to-point security, as opposed to end-to-end security.) SSL can be used in three modes: SSL uses a combination of secret-key and public-key cryptography to secure communications.
SSL traffic uses secret keys for encryption and decryption, and the exchange of public keys is used for mutual authentication of the parties involved in the communication.
Application-level security complements transport-level security. Application-level security is based on XML frameworks defining message confidentiality, integrity, authenticity (also known as message protection); message structure; trust management and federation.
These components of application-level security are described in greater detail in the following sections, "Understanding Message Protection", "Understanding Authentication", and "Understanding Authorization".
Transport-level security secures the communications channel between applications.
An example of a transport-level security protocol is Secure Socket Layer (SSL), otherwise known as Transport Layer Security (TLS), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) officially standardized version of SSL.
Public-key certificates (or certificates, for short) are used to guarantee the integrity of public keys.
Web services security requirements are supported by industry standards both at the transport level (Secure Socket Layer) and at the application level relying on XML frameworks.
This section includes information about verifying email address identities.For more information about the specifications and standards supported by Web services, see Appendix A, "Web Service Security Standards." Oracle Web Services Manager (WSM) is designed to define and implement Web services security in heterogeneous environments, including authentication, authorization, message encryption and decryption, signature generation and validation, and identity propagation across multiple Web services used to complete a single transaction.Security concepts can be divided into those that pertain to the transport level and to the application level.See "Understanding Authentication" for more information. Web services security requirements also involve credential mediation (exchanging security tokens in a trusted environment), and service capabilities and constraints (defining what a Web service can do, under what circumstances).In many cases, Web services security tools such as OWSM rely on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) environments.Authorization (also known as access control) is granting access to specific resources based on an authenticated user's entitlements.Entitlements are defined by one or several attributes.When using digest authentication: The advantage of digest authentication is it is resistant to replay attacks.The implementation maintains a cache of used nonces/timestamps for a specified period of time.SAML is an open framework for sharing security information on the Internet through XML documents.SAML includes three parts: The full SAML specification is used in browser-based federation cases.