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The reference relates to Multicellular filaments from arctic Canada identified as a red algae Bangiomorpha pubescens. The curtain rises on a drama in the sea that has already begun, and has been going on for some time". London, Published by James Reynolds 174 Strand, 20t.10.1849. The first of these began about 443 million years ago.
"In all but detail, this fossil is indistinguishable from modern Bangia" for the Ediacaran fossils to first appear, 655,000,000 years ago. This showed life beginning with the Silurian system, which it described as "a marine deposit of vast extent containing abundance of marine organic remains. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals.
"More than 3.5 billion years ago, small single-celled organisms acquired the capacity to photosynthesize" "Plants were restricted to the aquatic world until three billion years later, the first uncontroversial evidence for life is found 2,700,000,000 years ago.
The reference relates to sulphate and iron reduction as early forms of microbial respiration.
He began to do this in 1866 in the General Morphology. about 419,2000,000 to 393,300,000 years ago Early Devonian The vegetation of the early Devonian consisted primarily of small plants, the tallest being only a meter tall.
By the end of the Devonian, "The earth's atmosphere was changing rapidly, going from perhaps 10 percent to 1 percent CO2 and from about 5 percent to 20 percent oxygen over a 50- million year period in the (late) Devonian period.
This was not adopted, but his division into Mississippian, for the 's "Story of a piece of coal" focuses on coal formation, but includes a section on the carboniferous limestone.
cells with nuclei certainly existed by 1,200,000,000 years ago. In 1835, William Kirby in On Power of God in Creation of Animals 2. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart.) 13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others...estimate between 18 and 11 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, "When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled.Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to distant futurity." (Charles Darwin) From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said (1903) that the Pithecoiden (monkey) theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys.Three strata of toadstone had been found, and the limestone under the third was as far as miners had reached. The map project describes the "shallow tropical sea surrounded by coral reefs" in which the limestones were laid down and how "subterranean volcanoes erupted spasmodically through the sea floor, covering the limestones with ash and lava" which formed the toadstone.is Galena (lead sulfide) formed as pockets or veins in carbonate rock into which the mineral bearing fluid rock has intruded.372,200,000 to 358,900 years ago Famennian age of the separated by about 10 million years.About 375 million years ago, towards the end of a time interval called the Givetian.The end-Frasnian extinction was most pronounced in tropical environments, particularly in the reefs of the shallow seas.Reef building sponges called stromatoporoids and corals suffered losses and stromatoporoids finally disappeared in the third extinction near the end of the Devonian.