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In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa.
Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.
The city used to be a major European political center.Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace of Turin) was also built.In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill.The population of the city proper is 886,837 (31 December 2016) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants.The University of Turin was also founded during this period.Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563.In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it.By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded for Sardinia, and part of the former Duchy of Milan, and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom.At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned.